NEB Physics Syllabus is designed to provide students with an understanding of the scientific laws and principles of the physical world.
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Grade XI NEB syllabus – NEB Physics Syllabus
PHYSICS
Full Marks: 100(75T+25P)
Pass Marks: 27T+8P
Teaching Hours: 150T+50P
Nature of Course: Theory+Practical
Nature of Course: Theory+Practical
I. Introduction of NEB Physics Syllabus
NEB Physics Syllabus is designed to provide students with an understanding of the scientific laws and principles of the physical world. As expected, this curriculum will provide an opportunity for the students to see NEB physics as a contribution to life in modern society. The Course demands an emphasis on conceptual understanding of the physical phenomena. This will involve the proper utilization of suitable mathematical models and equations. The applications of NEB physics together with the social and environmental aspects need to be emphasized whenever possible. The students are expected to actively participate in the learning process through experimentation supplemented by demonstration, discussions and problemsolving.
The practical component of this course is designed to supplement learning through the application of the learned theory. The students will handle simple apparatus to do simple measurements, verify physical laws and apply their knowledge of NEB physics to reallife examples.
II.Objectives of NEB Physics Syllabus
General Objectives of NEB Physics Syllabus
The general objectives of NEB Physics Syllabus are:
a.to provide students with sufficient understanding and knowledge of the fundamental principles of physics and their applications;
b.to develop the skills of experimenting, observing, interpreting data evaluating evidence and formulating generalizations and models; and
c.to explain the social, economic, environmental and other implications of physics and appreciate the advancement of physics and its applications as essential for the growth of the national economy.
Specific Objective of NEB Physics Syllabus
Upon completion of Physics Syllabus course, the students will be able to:
1.describe physics as a coherent and developing the framework of knowledge based on fundamental theories of the structure and process of the physical world;
2.explain phenomena in terms of theories and models;
3.apply quantitatively and qualitatively the knowledge and understanding of physical principles and theories;
4.translate information from one form to another;
5.present information in the language of physics or other appropriate forms; and
6.design a simple experiment to develop relations among physical quantities and draw conclusions.
III.Course Contents of NEB Physics Syllabus
Unit 1 Mechanics 70 Teaching hours
1.Physical Quantities Need for measurements; system of units; S.I. unit; Precision and significant figures; Dimensions; Main uses of dimensional equations. (3 hrs.)
2.Vectors Graphical presentation of vectors; addition and subtraction of vectors parallelogram, triangle and polygon laws of vectors; Resolution of vectors; Unit vectors
3.Kinematics Uniform and nonuniform motion; average velocity and acceleration. Instantaneous velocity and acceleration; equation of motion (graphical treatment); Motion of a freely falling body; relative velocity; projectile motion (3 hrs.)
4.Laws of Motion Newton’s laws of motion; Inertia, force, linear momentum, impulse, conservation of linear momentum; Freebody diagrams: Solid frictions: laws of solid friction and their verifications: Application of Newton’s laws: Particles in equilibrium.
5. Work, and Energy work; work done by a constant force and a variable force; Power; Energy: Kinetic energy; workenergy theorem; Potential energy; conservation of energy; Conservative and nonconservative forces; Elastic and inelastic collision (4 hrs.)
6.Circular Motion: Angular displacement, velocity and acceleration; Relation between angular and linear velocity and acceleration; Centripetal acceleration, centripetal force Conical pendulum; Motion in a vertical circle; Motion of cars and cyclists around a banked.
7.Gravitation Newton’s laws of gravitation; acceleration due to gravity, g; Mass and weight; gravitational field strength, variation in the value of ‘g’ due to altitude, depth, and rotation of the earth; Weightlessness; Motion of satellites: Orbital velocity height and time period of a satellite, geostationary satellite, potential and kinetic energy of a satellite; Gravitational potential energy; Escape velocity; Black holes (9 hrs.)
8.Equilibrium Moment of forces; Torques; Torque due to a couple; Center of mass; center
9.Rotational Dynamics Rotation of rigid bodies; Equation of angular motion; Relation between linear and angular kinematics; The kinetic energy of rotation of rigid bodies, a moment of inertia; Radius of gyration, Moment of inertia of a uniform rod; Torque and angular acceleration for a rigid body; Work and power in rotational motion; angular
momentum; Conservation of angular momentum. (8 hrs.)
10.Elasticity Hooke’s law: Force constant, Verification of Hooke’s law; Stress; Strain; Elasticity and plasticity; Elastic modulus; Young modulus and its determination, Bulk Modulus, Shear modulus, Poisson’s ratio, Elastic potential energy. (6 hrs.)
11.Periodic motion Oscillatory motion; Circle of reference; Equation of Simple Harmonic Motion (SHM); Energy in SHM; Application of SHM; Motion of a body suspended from coiled spring, angular SHM; simple pendulum; Damped oscillation; Forced oscillation and
12.Fluid mechanics Fluid statics: Density; pressure in a fluid; Archimedes principle; Buoyancy Surface tension; Molecular theory of Surface tension; Surface energy; The angle of contact and capillarity; Measurement of the coefficient of surface tension by capillary tube
method.
Fluid Dynamics: Newton’s formula for viscosity in a liquid; Coefficient of viscosity; Laminar and turbulent flow; Poiseuille’s formula (method of dimensions); Stokes law and its applications; Measurement of the viscosity of viscous liquid; Equation of continuity;
Bernoulli’s equation and its applications. (10 hrs.)
Unit 2 Hear and thermodynamics 40 teaching hrs.
1.Heat and temperature the concept of temperature; Thermal equilibrium; Thermal expansion; linear expansion, cubical expansions, and their relation: Measurement of linear expansivity, Liquid Expansion: Absolute and apparent expansion of liquid, Measurement of absolute expansivity by Dulong and Petit method (5 hrs.)
2.Quantity of hear: Heat capacity and specific heat capacity; Newton’s law of cooling; Measurement of specific heat capacity of solids by the method of the mixture and of liquids by the method cooling. Change of phases; Latent heat; Specific latent the heat of fusion; and vaporization and their measurements by the method of mixture ( 5 hrs.)
3.Thermal properties of matter Equation of state Ideal gas equation; PV diagram; Molecular properties of matter; Kinetic molecular model of an ideal gas: Derivation of pressure exerted by gas; the average translational kinetic energy of a gas molecule; Boltzmann constant; Root mean square speed; Hear capacities; heat capacities of gases
4.Hygrometry Saturated and unsaturated vapor pressure; Behavior of saturated vapor, Boiling point; Triple point and critical point; Dew point, Absolute humidity; Relative humidity and its determination. (3 hrs.)
5.Transfer of heat Conduction, Thermal conductivity and its determination by Searle’s method; Convection; Convective coefficient Radiation; Ideal radiator; Black body radiation; Stefan Boltzmann law (4 hrs.)
6.First law of thermodynamics Thermodynamics systems; work done during volume change, Hear and work; Internal energy and First law of thermodynamics; Thermodynamics processes: Adiabatic, Isochoric, Isothermal, Isobaric processes; Heat capacities of an ideal gas at constant pressure and volume and relation between them; Isothermal and adiabatic processes for an ideal gas (9 hrs.)
7. Second law of thermodynamics Direction of thermodynamic processes; Second law of thermodynamics; Heat engines; Internal combustion engines; Otto Cycle, Diesel cycle; Carnot cycle; Kelvin temperature scale; Refrigerators; Entropy and disorder
Unit 3 Geometrical Optics 20 Teaching hrs.
1.Photometry, Reflection at curved mirrors Convex and concave mirrors; Image in Spherical mirrors; Mirrors formula; real and virtual images (2 hrs.)
2.Refraction at plane surfaces Laws of refraction, Refractive index; Relation between refractive indices; Lateral shift; Total internal reflection and its applications; critical
3.Refraction through prisms Minimum deviation; Relation between the angle of the prism, minimum deviation and refractive index; Deviation in small angle
4.Lenses Spherical lenses; thin lens formula, lens maker’s formula, power of lens; Combination of thin lenses in contact (4 hrs.)
5.Dispersion Spectrum; Spectrometer; Pure spectrum; Dispersive power; Achromatic lenses; Condition for achromatic lenses in contact, Chromatic aberration Spherical aberration; Scattering of the lightblue color of the sky (3 hrs.)
6.Optical Instruments The human eye; Defects of vision and their correction; visual angle; Angular magnification; Magnifier; Camera; Compound microscope, Astronomical
Telescope (reflection and refractive type) (5 hrs.)
Unit 4 Electrostatics 20 teaching hrs.
1.Electrostatics Electric charge: Electric charges; conductors and insulators; Charging by induction; Coulomb’s law Force between two point charges, Force between multiple electric charges. (3 hrs.)
2.Electric field Electric fields; Calculation of electric field due to point charges; Field lines Gauss law; Electric Flux; Gauss law and its application; Field of a charged sphere, line charge, plane sheet of charge. (7 hrs.)
3Potential: The potential and potential difference, potential due to a point charge; Equipotential lines and surfaces; Potential gradient; Potential energy Electron volt. (3 hrs.)
4.Capacitance and dielectrics Capacitance and capacitor; Charging and discharging of the capacitor through a resistor; parallel plate capacitor; Combination of capacitors; Energy of charged capacitor; Effect of a dielectric; Molecular theory of induced charges;
Polarization and displacement. (7 hrs.)
A student will perform 20 experiments and 4 activities from the given list:
General instruction: Students are expected to learn general ideas of errors, an order of accuracy and graphical analysis
List of Experiments of NEB Physics Syllabus
A. Mechanics
1. Use of Vernier calipers:
a.Determination of the length, the internal and external diameter of a given tube and calculation of its volume and density
b.Determination of the volume and density of a given rectangular block and verification of the results using a graduated cylinder.
c.Determination of the internal diameter, depth, and volume of a beaker or calorimeter.
2. Use of Spherometer:
a.Determination of the thickness of a given rectangular thin glass plate and calculation of its area using a graduated cylinder
b.Determination of the radii of curvatures of a watch glass
c.Determination of the focal length of a spherical mirror
3. Use of Screw gauge:
a.Determination of a diameter of a tube (or of a rod) and a small spherical bob and calculation of their densities.
b.Determination of a length, volume, and density of a tangle of wire.
4. Determination of the coefficient of friction for the two surfaces by (i) the horizontal plane method and (ii) an inclined plane method
5. Verification of the principle of moments and the determination of a mass of a given body.
6. Use of simple pendulum:
a.Determination of the length of a second’s pendulum and the value of ‘g’ in the laboratory.
b.Verification of the law of length and determination of the value of ‘g’ in the laboratory by the loglog plot of the lime period versus length of the pendulum
7.Verification of Archimedes’ Principle and determination of the specific gravity of a solid heavier than and insoluble in water 8. Determination of the specific gravity of
a.A liquid
b.A solid lighter than and insoluble in water
c.A solid heavier than and soluble in water 9. Use of Boyle’s law apparatus:
a. Verification of Boyle’s law
b.Determination of the atmospheric pressure in the laboratory without reading a barometer and verification of the result by reading a barometer.
10. Use of Young’s modulus apparatus
a.Verification of Hooke’s law
b.Determination of Young’s modulus of elasticity of the material of a given wire
11. Determination of the surface tension of water by capillary tube method 12. Determination of the coefficient of viscosity of liquid by Stake’s method.
B. Heat
13.Calibration of a given thermometer and determination of the correct temperature of tap water.
14. Use of Pullinger’s apparatus
a. Determination of the linear and cubical expansivity of a rod.
15. Use of Renault’s apparatus:
a. Determination of the specific heat capacity of a solid by the method of mixture
b. Determination of the specific heat capacity of a liquid by the method of mixture 16. Determination of the Specific heat capacity of a liquid by the method of cooling.
17. Determination of latent heat of fusion of ice.
18. Determination of latent heat of vaporization of water 19. Determination of the melting point of a solid by
i. Cooling curve methods
ii.Capillary tube Method
20. Determination of the thermal conductivity of a good conductor by Searle’s method.
C. Geometrical Optics
21. Reflection of light:
a.Verification of the laws of reflection of light
b.Verification of the law of rotation of light.
22.Use of rectangular glass slab:
a.Verification of the laws of refraction of light.
b.Study of the variation of lateral shift with the angle of incidence and determination of the thickness of the slab.
23.Use of Travelling Microscope:
a. Determination of the refractive index of the glass slab
24.Determination of the refractive index of a prism by (i) Symmetry method (ii) ID curve method
25.Determination of the focal length of
a.A concave mirror.
b.A convex mirror.
26.Determination of the focal length of
a.A convex lens by double pin method
b.A convex lens by the displacement method
27.Determination of the focal length of a concave lens by using a convex lens
28.Determination of the refractive index of the material of a planoconvex lens
List of Activities
1.To study the variation in the range of a jet of water with an angle of projection
2.To study the effect of detergent on surface tension by observing the capillary rise
3.To study the factors affecting the rate of loss of heat of a liquid
4.To study the nature and size of the image formed by a convex lens using a candle and a screen.
5.To study the conservation of energy of a ball rolling on an inclined plane.
Note: The above are only the specimens of activities; In order to arouse creativity, the students must be encouraged to take up new activities (other than mentioned above) in consultation with the teacher concerned.
Laboratory Manual of NEB Physics Syllabus
I. Certificate Level Physics Practical Guide, U.P. Shrestha, Ratna Pustak Bhandar, Kathmandu.
II. Elementary Practical Physics, Dr. Narayan Hari Joshi, Taleju Prakashan
IV. Teaching Strategies:
Lecturing
• Group interaction
• Problem solving
• Demonstration
• Evaluation
V. Instructional materials
OHP, LCD, demonstrations kits, writing boards, etc.
VI. Evaluation scheme (Theory)
Unit

Teaching
Hours

LAQ

SAQ

Numerical
Problem

Mark distribution

Total







LAQ

SAQ

Numerical Problem


Mechanics

70

3/4

5/7

3/4

5+5+4

2×5=10

5+3+3

35

Heat and
thermodynamics

40

2/3

3/4

2/2

4+4

2×3=6

3+3

20

Geometrical Optics

20

1/2

1/2

1/1

4

2

4

10

Electrostatics

20

1/2

1/2

1/1

4

2

4

10

Total

150

7/11

10/15

7/8

30

20

25

75

Note:
LAQ: Longanswerquestions
SAQ: Shortanswerquestions
a.Q. No 1,5, 8 and 10, the first questions of groups A, B, C, and D respectively should contain 7, 4, 2 and 2 conceptual questions each carrying 2 marks, out of which students should give answers as indicated in table
b.In the table numerator denotes the number of questions to be attempted and denominator denotes the number of questions asked. For example, 3/4 means 3 questions are to be answered out of 4 questions.
c. Short answer questions should cover the entire course as far as possible. These questions should be of conceptual type.
d.Each of the questions numbering 2, 3, 6, 7, 9, 10 and 11 contain long answer theory questions and a numerical problem carrying marks as specified in the table.
e.There will be only one specific ‘or’ choice in one of the questions of LAQ type in each group.
f.there will be only one specific ‘or’ choice for numerical problems in mechanics.
Practical
Every student will perform at least 20 experiments and 4 activities during the academic year.
VII.Evaluation Scheme for Practical examination:
One Experiment 12 Marks
One Activity 3 Marks
Practical record of experiments and activities 5 Marks
Viva on experiment and activity 5 Marks
Total Marks 25
VIII. Textbook:
1. University Physics, Sears F.W, M.W. Zemansky, H.D. Young and R.A, Freedman, 11^{th}edition, Pearson Education Singapore, 2004.
IX.Reference book:
1.Advanced level Physics, Nelkon and parker, Heimesmann Education book ltd., 2000. Advanced level Physics Tom Duncan, John Murray Ltd, 200
2. Paudyal, Devi Dutta et.al., Fundamentals of PhysicsXI, Bhundipuran Prakashan, ktm.
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