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Environmental Education syllabus


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Secondary Curriculum

Environmental Education Syllabus

Grade XI  

Government of Nepal

Ministry of Education

Curriculum Development Centre


Secondary School curriculum

Environmental Education Syllabus

Full marks: 100

Teaching hour: 150 

1.  Introduction

Environmental Education Syllabus addresses three aspects of the environment, namely 

(a) The national education objectives related to the environment 

(b) Country’s growing concern about environmental degradation and 

(c) The academic opportunities for study environment subjects.


Objectives of national education the system emphasizes the teaching of thoughtful protection and wise use of the country’s natural resources, helping the individuals lead socially harmonious lives in the modern world, and helping the modernization process of the country creating capable manpower for its development.

The modern world is threatened by increasing environmental degradation and natural as well as anthropogenic hazards. There is a growing demand for making people aware of the consequences of environmental degradation and stimulating them to act wisely to protect the environment. Opportunities for higher education in environmental science and environmental education are available. Teaching on these disciplines has been initiated at primary as well as secondary school levels. Demand for academically qualified and methodologically skilled teaching human resources will increase in the future. This background has prompted the implementation of the environmental education Syllabus course at the higher secondary level. Implementation of this course will help produce potential teachers who:

a.       are able to teach Environment Education subjects in primary and lower secondary schools  

b.      can qualify themselves to pursue bachelor level studies in environmental education:

c.       arc conscious about the wise use of the country’s natural resources without damaging the environmental balance and

d.      are able to act thoughtfully to protect the environment.


2.  General Objectives

The general objectives of the Environmental Education Syllabus are to develop the potential human resources which are well aware of environmental issues and their underlying cause, measure to minimize environmental degradation and who are able to stimulate themselves to take necessary actions to protect the environment, including teaching the students of lower secondary level.


3.  Specific objectives

On completion of the course mention on Environmental Education Syllabus the students will be able to:

1.      describe the concept, importance, and components (scope) of environmental education;

2.      define the meaning of the environment, its importance, and elements;

3.      explain CEO-system with emphasis on inter-relationship between human being and environment;

4.      explain the courses and effects of environmental degradation;

5.      describe the concept and effects of environmental degradation;

6.      describe the mitigation measures to protect environmental degradation;

7.      describe the major types of natural hazards in Nepal and their possible methods of mitigation and

8.      explain measures of pollution control.


4.  Course Contents

Unit 1  Introduction                                                                               ( 10 Teaching hours)

1.  Meaning and scope of environment

2.  Importance of environment

3.  Elements of environment

(a)   Physical: land, water, air (atmosphere), energy

(b)  Chemical

(c)   Biological: plants, animals, human beings

(d)  Social/cultural

4. Meaning and definition of environmental education


Unit II  Ecology and Eco-System                                (40    Teaching hours)

1. Concept of ecology

a.    Introduction

b.   Ecological factors, biotic and abiotic factors, the interaction between abiotic and

biotic factors.

2. Concept of the ecosystem

a.    Introduction

b.    Food chain and food web

c.    Trophic level

d.    Ecological pyramid and its type (pyramid of a number, the pyramid of biomass and pyramid of energy)

e.    Productivity and its type (primary productivity and secondary productivity)

f.     Types of ecosystem: Water ecosystem (pond ecosystem) and Terrestrial ecosystem (grassland ecosystem)

3.  Concept of community and succession.

4.  Biogeochemical cycle

               a. Carbon cycle     

            b. Nitrogen cycle

5.  Conservation of natural resources.

a.   Introduction

b.  Methods of conservation of natural resources

c.   Types of natural resources


Water resources

Use and importance of water resources, problem, and conservation of water resources.

Forest resources

Importance of forest, forest conservation or forest management.


Wildlife resources

Categories of wildlife, endangered wildlife of Nepal, Causes of extinction of wildlife, conservation, and management of wildlife. Types of flora and fauna in different regions of Nepal.

Wildlife reserves of Nepal, National parks of Nepal.

d.  The interrelationship between man and natural resources

e.   Effects of human activities on natural resources and the importance of biodiversity

Unit III Environmental Pollution                                        (35 Teaching hours)

1.         Introduction: Causes of environmental pollutions: local national, regional and global issues of environmental pollutions.

2.         Air: Introduction to physical structure and function of the atmosphere, the composition of the natural atmosphere, sources of air pollution, effects of air pollution on human health, animals, plants, ecosystem and materials: air quality standards and criteria pollutants; introduction to aerosol, greenhouse effects, ozone layer depletion, a phenomenon of acid rain and possible global environmental consequences.

3.         Water: Hydrologic cycle, sources of water, drinking water quality standard, sources of water pollution. qualitative indicators of water quality, common practices, and methods to protect local water sources and to prevent contamination.

4.         Soil: Origin and nature of soils, soil profile, soil properties and classification; soil degradation, introduction to major types of soil pollutants and their Sources: heavy metals, organic and inorganic pollutants, agrochemicals; introduction to land pollution indicators and common practices of soil remediation.

5.         Sound: Nature of sound, the difference between sound and noise, sources of noise, noise criteria, common methods and practices for controlling noise.

6.         Radiation: Basic introduction to radioactivity and radioactive: units, sources of radioactive radiation, effects of radiation on the environment and human health.


Unit IV Natural Hazards                                     (35  Teaching hours)


1.  Introduction: Introduction to minerals and rocks, faults, folds and joints, internal and external features of the earth, plate tectonics, physical features of Nepal weathering, soil formation and its characteristics, geological actions of rivers, glaciers, wind, groundwater.


2.  Natural hazards:

Flood: Causes, flood situation in Nepal and adjoining countries, its effects on people and environment, mitigation measures


Drought: causes of drought and its effects on people and the environment


Landslides and debris: flows definition, types, and causes (both natural and man-made), landslide and debris flow problems in Nepal and its effects on people and environment, mitigative measures.


Earthquake: nature and definition of earthquake, causes, and mechanism of an earthquake, focus and epicenter, Earthquake magnitude and intensity, history of earthquakes in Nepal and its possibility of occurrence in the future, preparedness for earthquake disasters, tsunami.


Glacial Lake Outburst Floods (GLOF): Definition, nature, and causes of formation of glacier lakes, their distribution in Nepal, effects of GLOF on people and the environment


Volcanoes: definition and types, volcanic cones, and craters, types of lavas,  types of volcanic hazards.


Unit V Environmental Degradation and Mitigation measures 

(20 Teaching hours) 

1. Environmental degradation

Nature and characteristics of environmental degradation caused by Soil erosion, deforestation, industrialization, urbanization, over the exploitation of natural resources, overpopulation.

2.  Concept and importance of mitigation measures.

3.  General measures for mitigating environmental degradation:

(a)   Promotion of environmental and conservation education.

(b)  Environmental stewardship: concept and measures.

(c)   Maintainingnatural balance.

(d)  Pollution control.

(e)   Environmental sanitation measures.

(f)    Afforestation

(g)  Soil conservation

(h)  Population control/family planning

(i)    Proper human settlement/planned urbanization

(j)    Environmental legislation and monitoring, Kyoto protocols, Rio Declaration.

Practical                                                                          (10 Teaching hours)

Study of rocks and minerals, the study of contour maps, determination of soil pH, moisture, content, determination of soil profile in the field, study of quality of water in pond, river and other sources, preparation of instructional materials from any theoretical topics of above units, the study of pond, river and land ecosystem. Field visits and reporting on natural hazards and environmentally problematic sites.


6.  Prescribed textbooks:

Textbook to be developed.


7.  Reference materials:

1.            Gurung, Juddha Bahadur, Environmental education-XI

2.            Sharma, Prabin Kishor Environmental Education-XI. Bhundipuran Prakashan, ktm 3. Plumber, Joy abel Phillip Neal, the Handbook of Environmental Education, London, 1994.

4.            IUCN, Batabaran Sikshya shrot Sangalo series, IUCN, lalitpur, 2050-2053

5.            IUCC Batabaran Shabdabali, IUCC, 2053

6.            Timisena, TAtwa, Our planet, (Hamro Prithvi), Nepal Forum for Environmental Journalist, Kathmandu, 1993.

7.            Pandit C.N. Fundamental of Environmental Education. K.P. Publication. Kathmandu, 2001.

8.            Timisena Tatwa Environmental Pollution (in Nepal Youth in Environment, Kathmandu, 1993.

9.            Posters on animals and plants of Nepal produced by IUCN

10.        Neupane, Ishwor prasad, Batabaran Sikshya, Taleju prakashan, 2061

11.        Pandit C.N Pushpa Raj Dhakal -Elementary Environmental Education (Nepali medium), Bidur Prakashan, Kathmandu. 2062.


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