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+2 geography syllabus
Grade XI NEB Syllabus - Geography
Geography Syllabus has been designed to familiarise the students with the study of Physical Geography. It also seeks to develop in them the knowledge and skills of cartography and surveying. This is a theory-cum-practical course.


Disclaimer: This is the old syllabus of NEB.
For 2076 Upadted syllabus with PDF download option,

Grade XI NEB Syllabus – Geography Syllabus






Grade: XI
Full marks: 100


Teaching Hours: 150


 I. Introduction
Geography Syllabus course has been designed to familiarise the students with the study of Physical Geography. It also seeks to develop in them the knowledge and skills of cartography and surveying. This is a theory-cum-practical course. The theory part(Physical Geography) carries 75 marks and the practical portion (Practical Geography) 25 marks. Students are required to pass both portions separately.
II.           General Objectives
Upon completion of Geography Syllabus course, the students will be able to:
a.       explain the terms and concepts related to physical geography;
b.      describe the structure, composition, and distribution of important faces and features of the earth; and
c.       use the basic skills of cartography.
III.        Specific Objectives
Upon completion of Geography Syllabus course, the students will be able to:
1.      describe the scope and importance of physical geography;
2.      identify and describe the constituents of different layers of the earth’s interior
3.      classify rocks into major types and describe their process of formation

4.      explain the processes involved in the formation of major landforms of the earth
5.      explain the causes and effects of endogenetic and exogenetic forces that bring changes on the earth’s surface
6.      point out and describe the landforms associated with the river and glacial action
7.      list and explain the elements and factors of climate
8.      describe the distribution and characteristics of major types of world climates
9.      classify the soil and natural vegetation of the world into major types and describe their world distribution
10.  construct graphical scale with primary and secondary divisions; 11. draw the profiles from the given contours:
12.     identify and draw important conventional signs used on toposheets; and
13.     survey an area with the help of a chain and a tape.
IV.        Course Contents:
Teaching Hours
Introduction to Physical Geography
Natural Vegetation
Representation of Relief
Conventional Signs
V.           Course Content in Detail
Part 1 Physical Geography (Theory)
Unit 1 Introduction to Physical Geography
1.1.            Definition and major branches of geography

1.2.            Scope and importance of physical geography
Unit 2 Landforms
1.1.            Structure of the earth; Lithosphere, Pyrosphere, and Barysphere
1.2.            Rocks: Formation and types
1.3.            Major landforms: Processes involved in the formation of Mountain, Plain, and plateau 
1.4.      Earth movements:
1.4.1. Volcanism- Causes, types and distribution 1.4.2. Earthquake- Causes, effects, and distribution 
1.5.      Denudation:
1.5.1.        Weathering- Physical, chemical and biological weathering
1.5.2.        Erosion- Introduction to the cycle of erosion
          1.6.      River processes and associated landforms:
1.6.1.        Stage, grade, base level and profiles of the river
1.6.2.        Consequent, subsequent, resequent and obsequent river, antecedent and superimposed drainage
1.6.3.        Landforms as a result of river action- water fall, pothole, gorge, river terraces, alluvial fan, peneplain, monadnocks and delta.
          1.7.      Glacial processes and associated landforms:
1.7.1.        Meaning and types of the glacier- Mountain and continental glacier
1.7.2.        landforms made by glacial action- U- Shaped valley, cirque, Roches, Moutonnees, Moraines, Outwash plain, drumlin, esker and kames
Unit 3: Climate
1.1.            Concepts of weather and climate
1.2.            Elements and factors of climate
1.3.            Temperature: Vertical and horizontal distribution; transfer of heat (radiation, conduction, and convection)  
1.4.            Pressure belts
1.5.            Wind system: Constant, periodical, occasional and local winds
1.6.            Humidity: relative and absolute
1.7.            Condensation: Forms of condensation (snowfall, hailstone, frost, dew, fog, and mist) 1.8.      Rainfall: Types of rainfall (orographic, conventional and cyclonic)
          1.9.      World climatic types: Distribution and physical characteristics of:
1.9.1.        Climates in the tropical zone (Equatorial, Monsoon, Savanna and Desert)
1.9.2.        Climates in the temperature zone (west European, The Mediterranean, and Temperate Grassland)
1.9.3.        The climate in the frigid zone (Tundra)
Unit 4 Soil
1.1.            Formation of soil: Process of podzolization, calcification, lateralization, and salination
1.2.            soil profile
1.3.            Major soil types and their world distribution
Unit 5 Natural Vegetation
5.1.            Concepts of plant community
5.2.            The relation between climate and natural vegetation
5.3.            Classification of natural vegetation based on moisture: Hygrophytes, xerophytes, and Tropophytes
5.4.            Major types of natural vegetation and their world distribution
Part II Practical Geography (Practical)
Unit 6 Scale
6.1.  Introduction to scale
6.2.  Construction of plain Scale
Unit 7 Representation of Relief
7.1.  Methods of showing relief on map: Colour, Hachures, spot heights, and contours
7.2.  Drawing contours and cross-sectional profiles: Conical hill, plateau, valley, and spur; gentle, undulating, concave and convex slopes.
Unit 8 Conventional signs
8.1. Identification and drawing of conventional signs used on toposheets
Unit 9 Surveying
9.1.  Chain and tape survey
9.2.  Surveying of the school premises
Note: Students must submit the practical record book to the department before the practical examination.
VI.        Instructional techniques
          Lecture, explanation, and illustration
          Demonstration and discussion 
          Individual and group work/project

          Self-study and practice
VII.     Prescribed Texts
1.      Khaniya, Prem Raj, Simple Physical Geography (Recent Edition), Bidhyarthi Pustak Bhandar, Kathmandu.
2.      Kadel, Narayan Prasad, Simple Practical Geography; (Recent Edition) Vidyarthi Pustak Bhandar, Kathmandu
VIII.  Reference books
1.      Shakya, Anand Man, Physical Geography (recent edition), Curriculum Development Centre, T.U.
2.      Gupta, Das and A.N. Kapoor, Principles of Physical Geography, (Recent Edition),
S.Chand & Company Ltd., New Delhi.
3.      Kadel, Narayan Pd., Simple Physical Geography (recent Edition), Ratna Pustak Bhandar, Kathmandu.
4.      Leong, Gho Cheng, Certificate Physical and Human Geography, (Recent Edition), Oxford University Press, Delhi.
5.      Poudel, Padma Chandra and Ram Chandra Poudel, Practical Geography (Recent Edition) Ratna Pustak Bhandar, Kathmandu.
IX.        Evaluation Scheme
The evaluation will be done mainly to measure the achievement of the students. It will be carried out mainly through written test. Schools can apply various internal evaluation devices to upgrade their teaching-learning situation. But there will not be a separate mark for internal evaluation. Marks secured in the annual examination will be the only criteria for passing the examination.
X.           Assessment Techniques and Mark Distribution
Written examination:                                                    75 marks
Unit wise mark distribution:
Unit 1-5 marks
Unit 2-40 marks
Unit 3-20 marks
Unit 4 and 5-10 marks
The evaluation of the students on the theory portion of the course will be done on the basis of a long answer, short answer and very short answer questions. Altogether nineteen questions will be asked covering most of the subunits and the students will be required to attempt fifteen of them. Specification Grids (Theory)
Type of Questions
Total questions to be asked
Total questions to be answered
Total marks
Long                  answer
Short                 answer
Very Short questions
Practical examination: 25 marks Mark distribution:
1. Practical paper       
– 16 marks
2. Practical record book   
– 5 marks
3. viva-voce                       
-4 marks
The evaluation of the students on the practical a portion of the course will be done on the basis of long answer and short answer questions of 3 hours duration. In the practical examination, six questions will be asked (Two form unit 6 and 7 each and one from unit 8 and 9 each) and the students will have to answer four questions selecting at least one from each unit.
Type of Questions 
Total questions to be asked
Total questions to be answered 
Total marks
long answer questions
short answer questions


      People who read this may also like to read  All others Grade XI/XI NEB Syllabus.
Or Download All NEB updated syllabus NEB 2076 Updated Syllabus

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