Prithvi Narayan Shah
King Prithvi Narayan Shah, (born 1723—died 1775), member of the ruling Shah family of the Gurkha (Gorkha) principality, Nepal, who conquered the three Malla kingdoms of Kathmandu, Patan, and Bhadgaon in 1769 and consolidated all them to found the modern state of Nepal. He also shifted the capital of Nepal at Kathmandu.
In 1742 King Prithvi Narayan became king of Gurkha. An ambitious ruler, King Prithvi Narayan was able to quickly enlarge his territory by conquering the quarrelsome and disunited principalities around Gurkha. King Prithvi Narayan’s initial attempts to establish hegemony over the three Malla kingdoms were abortive, however; the raja of Kathmandu enlisted the aid of the East India Company in 1767 and was able to repulse King Prithvi Narayan’s encroachments. Two years later, however, after the East India company’s forces had been recalled, Kathmandu was taken. This allowed King Prithvi Narayan to consolidate his territories into a new “Kingdom of Nepal,” which he made into a unified, strong, and independent state. King Prithvi Narayan then annexed Tarai, Kumaon, Garhwal, Simla, and Sikkim in northern India, as well as large portions of the Plateau of Tibet and of the valleys of the Inner Himalayas. By takeover Makwanpur, however, he brought down upon himself the combined military forces of the East India Company and the Nawab of Bengal, who together succeeded in retaking that area. Nepal at that time extended from Punjab to Sikkim and was almost twice as large inland area as it is today.
King Prithvi Narayan sealed his border and maintained peaceful but distant relations with the British, refusing to trade with them. King Prithvi Narayan died before he could effectively organize the administration of his new country. Upon his death, King Prithvi Narayan was succeeded by his son, King Pratap Singh Shah.